Anonymize headers in postfix

E-mail headers usually leak some information about the person sending the email. Most servers reveal the sender’s originating IP, but sometimes we might not want this behavior. Here’s a simple way to modify your postfix server to remove just the IP of the sender. The original idea is from but with postfix 2.9 version (Debian Wheezy) using the way proposed in the riseup article you will also be anonymizing all intermediate ‘Received: from’ headers and not just the sender’s. The setup proposed by riseup article seems to work fine with postfix 2.7 (Debian Squeeze).

1. Install postfix-pcre if you haven’t already.
# apt-get install postfix-pcre

Create a file /etc/postfix/smtp_header_checks with content:
/^\s*(Received: from)[^\n]*(.*)/ REPLACE $1 [] (localhost [])$2

Edit /etc/postfix/
Find the section about submission and add at the end of it: -o cleanup_service_name=subcleanup

submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING

submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
  -o cleanup_service_name=subcleanup

Then at the end of /etc/postfix/ file add the following:

subcleanup unix n       -       -       -       0       cleanup
    -o header_checks=pcre:/etc/postfix/smtp_header_checks

That’s it, reload your postfix and you’re done. When you’ll be sending emails over submission (you do use submission instead of smtp to send your emails, right?) then the first ‘Received’ header will be modified like the following example.
Instead of:

Received: from (abcd.efgh.domain.tld [])
        by mail.domain.tld (Postfix) with ESMTPA id BAB8A1A0224
        for <user@dst.domain2.tld>; Sun, 24 Nov 2013 15:47:50 +0100 (CET)

It will be:

Received: from [] (localhost [])
        by mail.domain.tld (Postfix) with ESMTPA id BAB8A1A0224
        for <user@dst.domain2.tld>; Sun, 24 Nov 2013 15:47:50 +0100 (CET)

If you want to anonymize even more headers, try adding the following to /etc/postfix/smtp_header_checks

/^\s*User-Agent/        IGNORE
/^\s*X-Enigmail/        IGNORE
/^\s*X-Mailer/          IGNORE
/^\s*X-Originating-IP/  IGNORE

As the riseup article says, be very careful of what is being logged at the server. If you don’t want to log the replacements done by pcre then add something like the following in your rsyslog.conf before any other rule:
:msg, contains, "replace: header Received:" ~

New traffic record for GRNET NOC streaming service

Around a year ago I wrote a blog post about how me and @zmousm scaled our streaming infrastructure at GRNET NOC so that we could cope with a sudden demand on the streaming service that we provide to the Greek Parliament. That setup was re-used again in January 2013 (Lagarde-list discussion) where we managed to surpass our previous record of 1.66Gbps reaching 1.79Gbps. We knew that the previous solution could definitely be improved though. Wowza does not seem to scale very well in our environment(*cough* java *cough*), so we modified our setup quite a bit.

What we did was take the original Wowza streamer, and ‘hide’ it behind two different categories of ‘proxy-servers’ that clients communicate with. The first category is made of three varnish proxies sitting at two different datacenters. All clients that fetch HTTP streams communicate only with the varnish proxies and not with the original streamer. Varnish uses very few resources and scales wonderfully. Then we added an nginx-rtmp server to offload RTMP clients from the original streamer. Now all RTMP clients communicate with nginx-rtmp only. We’ve also notified website owners that prefer using our RTMP stream to serve it through their own (flash) applications to switch to the nginx-rtmp endpoint. This means that the original Wowza streamer now mainly serves the three varnish proxies and the nginx-rtmp server as ‘clients’, and since the VM now has far less load, the stream it provides to the ‘proxy-servers’ doesn’t get ‘chopped’ from time to time, as it did previously when it served hundreds of clients.
While each wowza streamer previously needed 6Gb of RAM to serve around 500-600Mbit of traffic, varnish needs <1Gb and can easily serve 900Mbit. Our nginx-rtmp server also uses <1Gb of RAM. So we’re actually using fewer resources to serve more (happier) clients!

This setup gives us a lot of flexibility and extensibility. We can easily scale it horizontally when we want to just by adding more varnish or nginx-rtmp servers.

With this setup we were able to achieve 3.55Gbps and serve more than 6000 clients last Sunday (10/11/2013), that’s double of our previous record!

Here are the graphs:


New gpg key

I’ve decided to change my old gpg key with a new RSA 4096bits.

My new gpg key id is 0x7011E02C or if you prefer the longer version 0x897C03177011E02C

Transition statement

Date: 11/11/2013

For a number of reasons[0], I've recently set up a new OpenPGP key,
and will be transitioning away from my old one.

The old key will continue to be valid for some time, but I prefer all
future correspondence to come to the new one.  I would also like this
new key to be re-integrated into the web of trust.  This message is
signed by both keys to certify the transition.

the old key was:

pub   1024D/0x4A0A1BC8E4F4FFE6 2008-03-19 [expires: 2014-03-18]
      Key fingerprint = 9EB8 31BE C618 07CE 1B51  818D 4A0A 1BC8 E4F4 FFE6

And the new key is:

pub   4096R/0x897C03177011E02C 2013-11-11
      Key fingerprint = 79B1 9198 B8F6 803B EC37  5638 897C 0317 7011 E02C

To fetch the new key, you can get it with:

  wget -q -O- | gpg --import -

Or, to fetch my new key from a public key server, you can simply do:

  gpg --keyserver --recv-key 0x897C03177011E02C

If you already know my old key, you can now verify that the new key is
signed by the old one:

  gpg --check-sigs 0x897C03177011E02C

If you don't already know my old key, or you just want to be double
extra paranoid, you can check the fingerprint against the one above:

  gpg --fingerprint 0x897C03177011E02C

George Kargiotakis


You can find the above text here, signed by my old key and my new key.